Thorium Metal MSDS
|Description||Silver to grayish radioactive metal. Twice as dense as lead.|
|Uses||Because the thorium atom density is higher in thorium metal than in any
thorium compound, metal is the preferred form of thorium where the highest
nuclear reactivity or highest density is wanted.
|Registry Numbers and Inventories.|
|NIH PubChem CID||23960|
|Melting point, °C||1120 – 1160|
|Boiling point, °C||1730 – 2230|
|Vapor pressure, mmHg||0.1 (2431 C)|
|Solubility in water||Insouluble|
|Heat of fusion||20.93 kJ/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||598 kj/mole|
|Hazards and Protection.|
|Storage||Keep in a cool, dry, dark location in a tightly sealed
container or cylinder. Keep away from incompatible materials, ignition
sources and untrained individuals. Secure and label area. Protect
containers/cylinders from physical damage.
|Handling||All chemicals should be considered hazardous. Avoid direct
physical contact. Use appropriate, approved safety equipment. Untrained
individuals should not handle this chemical or its container. Handling
should occur in a chemical fume hood.
|Protection||Wear appropriate protective gloves, clothing and goggles.|
|Respirators||Wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA).|
|Small spills/leaks||Contact the local, state, or Department Of Energy Radiological Response
Team. Do not use water. Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition
away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Keep material dry. Do
not attempt to sweep up dry material.
|Stability||When pure it is air-stable.|
|Incompatibilities||React vigorously with incandescence.|
|Fire fighting||Contact the local, state, or Department Of Energy
Radiological Response Team. Do not use water. Use graphite, soda ash,
powdered sodium chloride, or suitable dry powder.
|Fire potential||May burn but does not ignite readily.|
|Hazards||Some of these materials may burn, but most do not ignite
readily. Uranium and Thorium metal cuttings may ignite spontaneously if
exposed to air. Extremely flammable; will ignite itself if exposed to air.
Burns rapidly, releasing dense, white, irritating fumes. Substance may be
transported in a molten form. May re-ignite after fire is extinguished.
Nitrates are oxidizers and may ignite other combustibles. May explode from
heat or contamination. Some may burn rapidly. Some will react explosively
with hydrocarbons (fuels). May ignite combustibles (wood, paper, oil,
clothing, etc.). Containers may explode when heated. Runoff may create fire
or explosion hazard.
|Exposure limit(s)||OEL_Russia: 0.05mg/m3|
|Exposure effects||Supralethal radiation doses may result in headache, acute brain
syndrome, alterations in mental status including coma, and (rarely) seizures
within minutes of exposure. Prenatal ionizing radiation exposure may cause
congenital anomalies, mental retardation, and an increased incidence of
|Ingestion||Gastrointestinal syndrome (nausea/vomiting) commonly occurs after doses
of 9 to 20 gy and may occur following doses as low as 5 gy. Initial vomiting
is followed by persistent diarrhea, which may be bloody.
|Inhalation||Pulmonary radiation injury may result in radiation pneumonitis and
radiation pulmonary fibrosis.
|Skin||Thermonuclear burns may occur. If erythema is produced by a penetrating
radiation, serious systemic injury is certain.
|Ingestion||Medical problems take priority over radiological concerns. Use first aid
treatment according to the nature of the injury. Do not delay care and
transport of a seriously injured person.
|Inhalation||Monitoring exposed patients for contamination and decontamination
procedures should be started. All personnel involved in handling patients
should wear disposable protective clothing. The patient should be completely
undressed and given a soap and water bath or shower (if the patient’s
condition permits and if the facility exists). Acute inhalation of
radionuclides presents some difficult problems.
|Skin||Immediately flush with running water for at least 20 minutes. See
|Eyes||Immediately flush with running water for at least 20 minutes. See
|Std. Transport #||4929112|